best married dating sites

Underground dating systems

Jump to navigation Jump to search «Falaj» redirects here. For settlements in Afghanistan and Iran, see Kariz. Please underground dating systems improve it or discuss these issues on the talk page. The neutrality of this article is disputed.

Relevant discussion may be found on the talk page. This article needs additional citations for verification. View a machine-translated version of the Dutch article. Do not translate text that appears unreliable or low-quality. If possible, verify the text with references provided in the foreign-language article. You must provide copyright attribution in the edit summary accompanying your translation by providing an interlanguage link to the source of your translation.

View a machine-translated version of the Croatian article. A qanat or kariz is a gently sloping underground channel to transport water from an aquifer or water well to surface for irrigation and drinking, acting as an underground aqueduct. English include kanat, khanat, kunut, kona, konait, ghanat, ghundat. Alternative terms for qanats in Asia and North Africa are kakuriz, chin-avulz, and mayun. Traditionally it is recognized that the qanat technology was invented in ancient Iran sometime in the early 1st millennium BC, and spread from there slowly westward and eastward.

In 2002, archaeologist Walid Yasin Al Tikriti provided a counterpoint that the qanat did not originate in Persia. As evidence, he noted seven Iron Age aflaj recently discovered in the Al Ain area of the UAE which were dated back to the first millennium BCE based on sherds, pottery, fireplaces, and architecture. In 2013, Boualem Remini and Bachir Achour, stated that the origin of the qanat technology is uncertain, yet confirmed the technology was in use in northwest Iran c. In 2016, Rémy Boucharlat in his paper Qanāt and Falaj: Polycentric and Multi-Period Innovations Iran and the United Arab Emirates as Case Studies, asserted that the attribution of the technology to Iranians in the early first millennium BCE is a position that cannot longer be maintained. Whereas Boucharlat contends archeological evidence indicates a polycentric innovation as opposed to a radial diffusion.

In arid and semi-arid regions, owing to high evaporation, transportation routes were in the form of ganats, which lead groundwater to consumption areas along underground tunnels. The original ancient engineered design of the Qanat and its multiple aligned bore-holes are thought to have controlled desert endorheic basin flooding without destroying the salt mirror playa or causing erosion of the flat evaporation fields. The Qanat water was primarily needed to extract salt, rather than for simple domestic irrigation. Qanats are constructed as a series of well-like vertical shafts, connected by gently sloping tunnels.